Convention on the Rights of the Child
Article 1 : Meaning of the Child
A child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
Article 21: Adoption
States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the adopted child.
Article 41: Respect for superior national standards
Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child.
Article 42: Knowledge of rights
States Parties undertake to make the principles and provision of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike.
Article 4: Protection of rights
States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention to the maximum extent of their available resources.
Article 27: Adequate standard of living
The right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development. The parent(s) for the child have the primary responsibility to secure the conditions of living necessary for the child’s development, and States Parties shall take the financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad. In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements.
Article 33: Drug abuse
The right to protection of children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances
Article 37: Definition and punishment
No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age. No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family.
Article 9: Separation from parents
States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child, and respect the right of the child to maintain contact with both parents on a regular basis
Article 30: Children of minorities/indigenous groups
Child of minorities/indigenous groups has the right to enjoy his or her own culture, practice his or her own religion, and to use his or her own language.
Article 3 : Best Interests of the child
All actions concerning child and the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
States Parties must undertake to ensure the child such protection and the necessary care as is necessary for his or her well-being in case of absence of the parents’ care.
Article 24: Health and health services
The right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. To diminish infant and child mortality, and ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children, to combat malnutrition and the appropriate health care for mothers.
Article 20: Children deprived of family environment
Special protection and assistance must be provided by the State to ensure the alternative care for such a child taking into consideration the child’s upbringing and to the child’s ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.
Article 22: Refugee children
States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a refugee child shall receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention.
Article 18: Parental responsibilities
Both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child
Article 8: Preservation of identity
States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations.
Article 17: Access to information
The right of the child to access to information from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual, moral well-being, physical and mental health.
Article 28: Right to education
The right of the child to education, by making primary education compulsory and available free to all, encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, the access of higher education all on the basis of his or her capacity, and to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child’s human dignity.
Article 23: Children with disabilities
The disabled child has the right to special care and to enjoy a full and decent life and facilitate the child’s active participation in the community.
Article 11: Kidnapping
States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.
Article 19: Protection from all forms of violence
States Parties shall provide the protection for the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse. And provide the necessary support programmes.
Article 39: Rehabilitation of child victims
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victi
Article 7: Registration, name, nationality, care
The child shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.
Article 38: War and armed conflicts
States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in, and to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.
Article 2 : Non-discrimination
All the rights are applicable on children without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s or legal guardian’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national,
ethnic or social origin, property, or disability
Article 29: Goals of education
Education must be directed to: development of the child’s personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential, development of respect for the child’s parents, his or her own cultural identity, and for civilizations different from his or her own;
Article 14: Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, and respect the rights and duties of the parents and to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.
Article 40: Juvenile justice
The right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child’s sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child’s respect for the human rights taking into account the child’s age and the desirability of promoting the child’s reintegration in society and providing vocational training programmes and institutional care.
Article 36: Other forms of exploitation
The right of the child to be protected against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child’s welfare.
Article 26: Social security
The right of the child to benefit from social security, including social insurance.
Article 10: Family reunification
The right of child and his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification.
Article 6: Survival and development
Every child has the inherent right to life and States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
Article 5: Parental guidance
States Parties shall respect the responsibilities and rights of parents and the extended family to provide direction in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention and what is applicable with his or her capabilities.
Article 12: Respect for the views of the child
States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views related to his or her interests including the judicial or administrative measures
Article 13: Freedom of expression
The child shall have the right to freedom of expression of all kinds, ask for information, acquire and disseminate them with the laws.
Article 34: Sexual exploitation
The right of the child to be protected from all forms of sexual exploitation.
Article 35: Abduction, sale and trafficking
The right of the child to prevented from the abduction, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.
Article 16: Right to privacy
No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, or correspondence, or to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
Article 25: Review of treatment in care
The right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of treatment.
Article 31: Leisure, play, and culture
The right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational and cultural activities.
Article 32: Child labour
The right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical development.
Article 15: Freedom of association
The right of the child to freedom of association and restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in the interests of national security or public safety.